About Differentiated Instruction
Differentiated instruction is a structure through which to provide students with opportunity to learn new material in a deep and meaningful way.  It combines the use of carefully planned strategies to engage learners and move them through content in ways that suit them as individual leaners.  Differentiated instruction starts with an assessment of the learner’s patterns, habits and preferences.  It also assesses where a learner is starting on the scaffold of knowledge offered by a unit of instruction. 
Strategies to deliver instruction to groups of students are tailored to meet the needs of the students within the groups.  Offering different modalities through which to acquire learning and skills is a hallmark of differentiated instruction.  There are many specific strategies and methods that can be employed within a differentiated context.  A few are listed below.

There is a great deal of information available about differentiated instruction available to both teachers and learners.  Using the works cited section of this page or even a simple web search will bring you to a wealth of information that can help you to use these strategies effectively as a learner or a teacher.